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高考英语阅读理解应考技巧
更新时间:2009-9-25 17:27:46 | 【字体:

策略一、紧扣主旨大意

  高考英语阅读理解的主旨大意题主要是考查考生在理解全文的基础上运用概括、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维的方法对文章进行高度的概括或总结的能力。常见的设问方式有:

●标题类:What's the best title/headline for the passage?

●大意类:The text is mainly about__.The topic/subject discussed in the passage is _ .From the passage,we can conclude that _ .

●作者意图类:What's the writer's purpose in writing the passage?

  针对主旨大意类型的题,考生可以掌握以下解题策略:把握文章逻辑结构,快速找出主题;寻找主题句,确定文章中心思想;将首段中心句和各段第一句话连接成一个整体,得出文章主题;逆向思维法解标题类问题。

一、把握文章逻辑结构,快速找出主题

  高考阅读理解文章的主要逻辑结构:

1、时间顺序。按时间先后顺序说明某一事件、某一理论的发展过程,属于这种结构的文章主题通常在首段或末段。

2、“总说-分述”结构。首段做总的说明,其他段落分别说明或具体论述首段的观点,属于这种结构的文章主题在首段。最典型的是新闻报道类文章,此类体裁的文章在近年高考阅读中逐渐增多。一般这类文章都有固定格式:城市名称(新闻社)———新闻内容。掌握一些国际知名新闻社的英文名称是必要的,路透社Reuters,美联社Associated Press,法新社Agence France Presse。

3、“分述-总说”结构。前面几段分别说明,末段总结。属于这种结构的文章主题在末段。

二、寻找主题句,确定文章中心思想

  不是所有的文章都有主题句,对于大部分有主题句的文章来说,主题句表达了文章的中心思想,找到了主题句,也就抓住了文章的主旨大意。主题句呈现的形式有:

1、在文首。文章开门见山,提出主题,随后摆事实、讲道理来解释、支撑和发展主题句所表达的主题思想。2、在文中。通常前面只提出问题,随之陈述细节引出主题,而后做进一步的解释、支撑或发展。3、在文尾。在表述细节后,归纳要点,得出结论,以概括主题。

三、将首段中心句和各段第一句话连接成一个整体,得出文章主题

  通常有些文章会在首段提出一个重要论点,随后在各段分别进一步从不同角度继续阐述,这样我们可以找出首段的中心句,再将其和各段第一句串联在一起,就可以得出文章的中心思想。如:(2006北京卷D篇71题)

Which is the best title for the passage?

A.Societal Conditions in Premodern Times

B.Practices of Reducing Maternal Attachment

C.Poor Health Service and High Infant Death Rate

D.Differences between Modern and Premodern Parents

第一段:Perhaps to prevent the sadness that infant death caused,a number of societal practices developed which worked against early attachment of mother and child.

第二段:One of these premodern attachment-discouraging practices was to leave infants unnamed until they had survived into the second year.…

第三段:A third practice which had the same distancing effect was wet-nursing.…

从第一段的中心句和各段的第一句不难看出,这篇文章的标题应该是Practices of Reducing Maternal Attachment.

四、逆向思维法解标题类问题

 针对这类题型,考生不妨思考一下,“如果我是作者,遇到这样的标题,文章应该怎样写?”如:

(2005全国I卷B篇62题)What would be the best title for the text?

A.A Cross-country Trip

B.A Special Border Pass

C.An Unguarded Border

D.An Expensive Church Visit

如果标题是A Cross-country Trip,那么文章应该讲述一次出境旅行;如果标题是A Special Border Pass,那么文章应该着重讲一个特殊的边境通行证;如果标题是An Unguarded Border,那么文章应该侧重讲边境如何不设防;如果标题是An Expensive Church Visit,那么文章应该讲一次礼拜如何花费昂贵了。经过这样的逆向思维,我们不难发现文章的内容恰好与标题An Expensive Church Visit一致,因此应该选D。

策略二、把握作者意图

  每一篇文章都有其写作目的。那么作者是如何在文章中体现自己的思想呢?他通过哪些语言向读者传达了自己的感受呢?我们在阅读的同时怎样收集、综合各种信息,体会作者的情感呢?了解这些有助于我们在做阅读理解题时把握作者思路,领会文章内涵,做出正确的选择。要做到这一点,我们需要从两个方面入手:一是把握作者的写作意图,二是把握出题的角度。下面我们就分别分析一下。

一、对于写作意图的把握

  有的文章只是客观地介绍一件事或物,或各方观点,作者不发表自己个人的意见,如一些科技文,新闻事件报道等。这样的文章属于“广而告知型”。要根据客观事实答题,一是一,二是二,凡与事实不符的选项,或文中没有提到的事实,当然都是不能选的。这样的题目难度一般都不会很大。最难于驾驭的是一些故事性、情感经历性的文章。因为作者在行文时会用到一些写作手法,如倒叙、插叙等。往往还会有一些思想、情感的波动。这就需要我们在阅读时认真把握,细心体会。

1.注意连接词的使用:Near the end of the last year in middle school,my dad took me to the wildlife refuge.He needed to get some aligator blood to do the experiment.At first,I thought fishing for alligators was a bad idea.What if one tried to eat me?But we had a lot of help,and my dad knew a lot about alligators,so it was OK.

通过第一句可知这是倒叙。我们知道了结果:作者去了野生动物保护区。接下来是作者当初由反感、害怕到最后打消顾虑同意去。都是通过连接词at first,but,so等展开的。所设题目是:

Why did the writer think that fishing for aligators was a bad idea at first?

A.Because the writer was afraid of the fierce alligators

B.Because we should protect alligators

C.Because the writer was not as brave as his father

D.Because the writer knew little about alligators

弄清了作者的思想波动就不难选出正确答案A了。

2.注意一些形容词及某些特定句式的使用:透过一些形容词可以看出作者的倾向,如:Isn't that wonderful if we get there by air?(作者希望坐飞机去那里。)

  某些句型表面看上去是比较级,而实际上是最高级含义。My mother decided to take me on the trip.It couldn't be better.(It couldn't be better=It's great.意为“太好了”)

  某些否定形式的句子实际上是肯定含义:We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our environment too much.(再怎么强调保护环境的重要性也不过分。)作者以这样的句子体现自己的观点:必须加大力度保护环境。

  注意虚拟语气的使用。How I wish I had passed the driving test.(我多么希望已通过了驾照考试呀!)此句暗含的事实是:并没通过考试。

3.将自己想象为故事中的主人公,体会其心理感受

  有一篇文章,写一个老太太刚刚在海边买了一座

   别墅,打算在那里度过余生。因为那里的气候湿润温暖,更适合她的健康。此时她站在曾经生活了25年的房子里,最后环顾这曾经装载了她的大半生的房子。所给的问题是:How does the old lady feel at the last moment in her old house?正确答案是:Her feeling is complex.其他的选项如She is happy/She is sad等都片面。只要我们设身处地站在老太太的位置上想一想,就不难找到正确答案。

4.把握全篇文脉,仔细揣摩事情发生的背景

  我们不仅要掌握一定的语言知识,还需要平时储备一定的逻辑推理能力以及必要的西方的文化背景知识,才能完全领会文章的主旨或者其所渗透出的幽默感。请看下面这篇介绍父子关系的文章。第一句话就开门见山:My father and I were very close.He was always proud of my success.然后用一个事例说明:If I won a spelling contest at school,he was on top of the world.如果知道be on top of the world是“高兴至极”的意思,也只是理解了语言的表层含义。接下来:When I was named President of

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the Ford Motor Company,I didn't know which of us was more excited.正确理解了上文的铺垫,才会真正领会此句暗含的意味及幽默:实际上父亲比我还高兴。如果对西方人的生活方式及习惯比较了解的话,也不难接受下面的句子:I hugged and kissed my dad at every opportunity———nothing could have felt more natural.我们再来继续欣赏一下父亲鲜明的个性:My father was a curious man who was always trying new things.He was the first person in my town to buy a motorcycle.Unfortunately,my father and his motorcycle didn't get along too well.He fell off it so often that he got rid of it just a month after buying it.As a result,he never again trusted any vehicle with less than four wheels.读懂了这些,就不难理解下文中为什么父亲不让“我”拥有一辆自行车,反而当“我”刚满16岁就让我开车了。正确理解了文章的来龙去脉及内涵,对于文后题目的处理也就会轻而易举了。

二、对于出题意图的把握

1.正确理解一个事物的两个方面

  有些题目不是直接照搬原文的话,而是用一些另外的语言表达出同样的意思,因此我们必须掌握用英文解释英文的技能。如一篇介绍辍学学生的文章,文章先后两次谈到学生辍学后的感想。第一次:Most students who dropped out of school in the United States admit they made a mistake by giving up and some say they might have stayed if classes were more chalenging.

第二次:three out of four said if they could turn back the clock they would choose to stay.文后的题目是Which of the folowing is right according to the passage?正确答案是:Most dropout students hope to go back to school if possible.虽然

  原文没有像题目这样明确说明,但其实这是一个事物的两个方面;对于辍学的后悔其实就是希望继续上学。通过正确推断这些文句的含义,即可找出正确答案。

2.以文章内容为基础进行判断

  有些题目要根据短文的内容来判断正误,这就需要按作者的思路去考虑,站在作者或文章内容中出现的人物的立场上予以辨析,不能依据自己的喜好或认知判断。

三、具体策略

  1.通过辨认细节的技巧,找到相关的事实或证据,对这些事实或证据进行分析和评价,在此基础上再作决定。切记:推断是以文章提供的事实为依据,而不是凭空想象,更不是读者自己的意愿。

  2.借助常识。在推理判断题中,我们平时积累的一些常识通常会派上用场。2006年陕西高考英语试卷中一篇关于通信发展史的阅读最为典型。A.The postal service has over the years become faster. B.The postal service has over the years become slower.大家都应知道交通越来越发达,邮电业当然是faster.此篇还涉及到有关发邮件的常识,如果同学们有这个common sense,就如鱼得水了。

  3.务必要用排除法。排除法在此类题型中发挥着不可磨灭的作用。根据在文章中找到的事实依据和常识排除错误信息,再排除和文章中一词不差的信息(文章里的原句不会是推理判断出来的结果,但通过同义词或句型转换过的选项有可能是正确答案),最后再排除无关或偏离信息,正确答案就不言而喻了。

  4.词句段篇,相互交融。词的理解要放在句子里,句子的理解要靠段,段的理解也离不开篇。单独说floor谁都知道是什么意思,但…she was floored to see her own name and address inside the cover,in her own handwriting…这个语境里是surprised的意思。因此不能独立地看某个词或某句话。此外,学生对一词多义或一些习语的积累也是很有必要的,这就要靠同学们课下多下工夫了。

  5.平时扩大词汇量的同时也要注意学习词的深刻内涵。从措辞去寻找文章的感情色彩,猜测作者的态度或写作意图。现仅举一简单的例子。When the phone finally rang,he leaped from the edge of his chair and grabbed for it.从这几个词我们能形象地看出他等电话之久,紧张迫不及待的心情,同时也说明电话之重要,这正是作者的真正意图。

  例He is an old cobbler(修鞋匠) with a shop in the Marais,a historic area in Paris.When I took him my shoes,he at first told me:“I have no time.Take them to the other fellow on the main street;he'll fix them right away.”

  But I'd had my eye on his shop for a long time.Just looking at his bench loaded with tolls and pieces of leather,I knew he was a skilled craftsman(手艺人).“No,”I replied,“the other fellow can't do it well.”

  “The other fellow”was one of those shopkeepers who fix shoes and make keys “while-u-wait”-without knowing much about mending shoes or making keys.They work carelessly,and when they have finished sewing back a sandal strap(鞋带)you might as well just throw away the pair.

  My man saw I wouldn't give in,and he smiled.He wiped his hands on his blue apron(围裙),looked at my shoes,had me write my name on one shoe with a piece of chalk and said,“Come back in a week.”I was about to leave when he took a pair of soft leather boots off a shelf.

  “See what I can do?”he said with a pride.“Only three of us in Paris can do this kind of work.”

  When I got back out into the street,the world seemed brand-new to me.He was something out of an ancient legend(传说),this old craftsman with his way of speaking familiarly,his very strange,dusty felt hat,his funny accent from who-knows-where and,above all,his pride in his craft.

  These are times when nothing is important but the bottom line,when you can do things any old way as long as it “pays”,when,in short,people look on work as a path to ever-increasing consumption(消费) rather than a way to realize their own abilities.In such a period it is a rare comfort to find a cobbler who gets his greatest satisfaction from pride in a job well done.

1.Which of the following is true about the old cobbler?

A.He was equipped with the best repairing tools.

B.He was the only cobbler in the Marais.

C.He was proud of his skils.

D.He was a native Parisian.

2.The sentence“he was something out of an ancient legend.”implied that___

A.nowadays you can hardly find anyone like him

B.it was difficult to communicate with this man

C.the man was very strange

D.the man was too old

解析:1.C文中多处提到关于自豪的字眼a cobbler who gets his greatest satisfaction from pride in a job well done.And he said with a pride.这正是C项的涵义。A,D是无关信息文中没有提及排除B是错误选项。依据:The other fellow还有Only three of us in Paris can do…

2.A说他像古代传奇中的人物。言行,打扮尤其对自己手艺的自豪,现代社会罕见。In such a period it is a rare comfort to find a cobbl

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er who gets his greatest satisfaction from pride in a job well done.B,D在文章中没有任何依据,排除。C项的strange很有迷惑性但文中说到的是strange hat not the man.

 

【试试看吧】

  All through my boyhood and youth,I was known as an idler;and yet I was always busy on my own private end,which was to learn to write.I kept always two books in my pocket,one to read,one to write in.As I walked,my mind was busy fitting what I saw with appropriate words;when I sat by the roadside,I would either read, or a pencil and a note-book would be in my hand,to note down the features of the scene or write some poor lines of verse.Thus I lived with words. And what I thus wrote was for no future use;it was written consciously for practice.It was not much that I wished to be an author(though I wished that,too)as that I had vowed that I would learn to write.That was a proficiency that tempted me ;and I practised to acquire it.Description was the principal field of my exercise;for to anyone with senses there is always something worth describing and town and country are but one continuous subject.But I worked in other ways also;I often accompanied my walks with dramatic dialogues,in which I played many parts;and often exercised myself in writing down conversations from memory.

  This was all excellent,no doubt.And yet this was not the most efficient part of my training.Good as it was,it only taught me the choice of the essential note and the right word.And regarded as training,it had one grave defect;for it set me no standard of achievement.So there was perhaps more profit,as there was certainly more effort,in my secret labours at home.Whenever I read a book or a passage that particularly pleased me,in which a thing was said or an effect rendered with propriety ,in which there was either some conspicuous force or some happy distinction(巧妙特色) in the style,I must sit down at once and set myself to ape that quality.I was unsuccessful and I knew it;and tried again,and was again unsuccessful and always unsuccessful;but at least in these vain bouts I got some practice in rhythm,in harmony,in construction and the coordination of parts.I have thus played the sedulous ape to Hzlitte,to Lamb,to Wordsworth,to Defoe,to Hawthorne.That,like it or not,is the way to learn to write;whether I have profited or not,that is the way.It was so,if we could trace it out,that all men have learned.

1.In this passage______.

A.an expert tells about how writers become successful

B.a writer tells about the techniques of writing

C.a student tells about how he learned to write

D.a writer tells about his experience of learning to write

2.Fromt his passage we can infer that____.

A.it is a good habit for everyone to take books in his pocket while idling in the street.

B.practice and imitation are important in learning to write

C.one had better start to learn to write from one's younger days

D.failure is the mother of success

参考答案:D\B

 

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