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更新时间:2010-5-25 8:46:33 | 【字体:
 1. 列举法(details)

  列举法,是通过列举一系列的论据对topic sentence中提出的论点进行广泛、全面地陈述或解释,列举的顺序可以按照所列各点内容的相对重要性、时间、空间等进行。如:

  Yesterday was one of those awful days for me when everything I did went wrong. First, I didn't hear my alarm clock and arrived late for work. Then, I didn't read my diary properly and forgot to get to an important meeting with my boss. During the coffee break, I dropped my coffee cup and spoilt my new skirt. At lunch time, I left my purse on a bus and lost all the money that was in it. After lunch, my boss was angry because I hadn't gone to the meeting.

  根据本段主题句中的关键词组everything I did went wrong,作者列举了5点内容,分别由First, Then, During the coffee break, At lunch, After lunch等连接词或短语引出,使得该文条理清楚、脉络分明、内容连贯。

  常用于列举法的过渡连接词及短语有:for one thing, for another, finally, besides, moreover, one another, still another, first, second, also等。

  2. 举例法(example)


  There are many different forms of exercise to suit different tastes. For example, those who enjoy competitive sports may take up ball games. For another example, if they prefer to exercise alone, they can have a run or take a walk in the morning or in the evening. Besides, people can go swimming in the summer and go skating in the winter. In short, no matter what their interests are, people can always find more than one sports that are suitable to them.

  本段采用了三个事例来说明主题句中的关键词组different forms of exercise,这三个例子分别由连接词For example, For another example 和 Besides引出,最后由In short引导的结尾句总结全段内容。

  举例法中常用的连接词及短语有:for example/instance, one example is, besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition等。

  3. 叙述法(narration)


  In the flat opposite, a woman heard the noise outside. When she looked out through the window, she discovered that her neighbor was threatened by someone. She immediately called the police station. In answer to the call, a patrol police car arrived at the scene of the crime quickly. Three policemen went inside the flat at once, and others guarded outside the building to prevent anyone from escaping.


  常用于叙述法中的过渡连接词及短语有:first, at the beginning, to start with, after that, later, then, afterwards, in the end, finally等。

  4. 对比法或比较法(comparison & contrast)


  The heart of an electronic computer lies in its vacuum tubes, or transistors. Its electronic circuits work a thousand times faster than the nicer cells in the human brain. A problem that might take a human being a long time to solve can be solved by a computer in one minute.

  在这段文字中, 作者为了突出电子计算机运行速度之快,首先将它与人脑进行了比较,“...a thousand times faster than...”;之后,又将这一概念具体到了a problem上,通过对比使读者从“...a long time...in one minute”上有更加直观的认识。常用于对比法或比较法中的过渡连接词及短语有:than, compared with等。

  5. 分类法(classification)


  Ever since humans have lived on the earth, they have made use of various forms of communication. Generally, this expression of thoughts and feelings has been in the form of oral speech. When there is a language barrier, communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions stand for letters, words and ideas. Tourists and the people unable to hear or speak have had to resort to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of the whole words are so vivid and exact that they can be used internationally; spelling, however, cannot. Body language transmits ideas or thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A nod signifies approval, while shaking head indicates a negative reaction. Other forms of nonlinguistic language can be found in signal flags, Morse code, and picture signs.

  在该段中为了说明topic sentence中的various forms of communication,作者将其分为oral speech, sign language, body language及other forms of nonlinguistic language,并逐一阐述。采用这种方法的段落并没有标志突出的连接词,所述各项均为平行并列关系,所以没有明显的主次之分。

  6. 因果分析法(cause and effect)


  The role of women in today's society is changing. One reason is that women have begun to assert themselves as independent people through the women's movement. Also, women are aware of the alternatives to staying at home. Another reason is that increasing numbers of women who enter new fields and interests serve as role models for other women. Moreover, men are becoming more conscious of the abilities of women and have begun to view their independence positively.


  常用于因果分析法的连接词及短语有:because, so, as a result, in order to等。

  7. 定义法(definition)


  Automation refers to the introduction of electronic control and automation operation of productive machinery. It reduces the human factors, mental and physical, in production, and is designed to make possible the manufacture of more goods with fewer workers. The development of automation in American industry has been called the “Second Industrial Revolution”.

  这一段文字使我们了解了automation和Second Industrial Revolution两个概念,分别由refers to和been called引出。

  常出现在定义法中的词及短语有:refer to, mean, call等。

  8. 重复法(repetition)


  Since that time, which is far enough away from now, I have often thought that few people know what secrecy there is in the young, under terror. I was in mortal terror of the young man who wanted my heart and liver; I was in mortal terror of my interlocutor (对话者) with the iron leg; I was in mortal terror of myself, from whom an awful promise had been extracted; ...

  该段中反复应用了I was in mortal terror of...(我经常处于恐惧之中)。

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作者:文/fjjyzx.com 来源:福建教育在线资格考试栏目
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