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    When Americans think about hunger, we usually think in terms of mass-starvation in far-away countries, but hunger too often lurks in our backyards. In 2006, 35.1million people, including 12.4million children in the United States did not have access to enough food for an active healthy life. Some of these individuals relied on emergency food sources and some experienced hunger. Although most people think of hungry people and homeless people as the same, the problem of hunger reaches far beyond homelessness. While the number of people being hungry or at the risk of hunger may be surprising, it is the faces of those hungry individuals that would probably most shock you. The face of hunger is the older couple who has worked hard for their entire lives, only to find their savings wiped out by unavoidable medical bills, or a single mother who has to choose whether the salary from her minimum wage job will go to buy food or pay rent, or a child who struggles to concentrate on his schoolwork because his family couldn’t afford dinner the night before. At December 2006 survey estimated that 48 percent of those requesting emergency food assistance, were either children or their parents. Children are twice as likely to live in households where someone experiences hunger and food insecurity than adults. One in ten adults compared to one in five children live in households where someone suffers from hunger and some food insecurity. Child poverty is more wide spread in the United States than in any other industrialized country. At the same time, the US government spends less than any industrialized country to pull its children out of poverty. We have long known that the minds and bodies of small children need adequate food to develop properly. But science is just beginning to understand the full extent of this relationship. As late as the 1980s, conventional wisdom held that only the most severe forms of malnutrition actually alter brain development. The latest empirical evidence however shows that even relatively mild under-nutrition produces cognitive impairments in children which can last a life time.

    Talks and conversations :


    M: Emily I know you’ve been the victim of a crime.

    F: Unfortunately, yes. Once I was mugged by some young kids.

    M: What happened?

    F: I was going home late at night, and I couldn’t see a single person on the street. And it was winter, oh, it was so cold , so I had my scarf wrapped around my face. And suddenly I walked straight into three guys, they looked about 14 or 15. and they said something threatening, like give us all your money or I’m going to kill you. I’m looking at them, because they look so young, and I’m thinking what on earth are you doing? They said blablabla, and I said, “listen, it’s very cold, give me a second, I have to take off my gloves.”

    M: You must be really scared

    F: Well I opened my purse and all I have got is few dollars. I was so nervous and I say, “ here it is”, and they say “four dollars?” Yeah, it’s 4 dollars and they say “that’s all you have?”

    M: So, so then what happened?

    F: Well I gave them money, and i just went home, But I felt so bad when I was walking down the street. You know I really had mixed feelings about it. I wanted to say Guys what are you doing? You know, go home, you asre ruining your lifes. And I think why are those kids on the street doing things they are not supposed to do? Something stupid, really stupid. That could lead to something worse.

    M: Why do you think Kids get involved in stealing?

    F: I don’t know , I mean it was only four dollars, you look at kids getting involved in this kind of small crime , and you think who is responsible? I don’t know what they were doing out on the street at that time of night

    M: Did you report the crime?

    F: No, I didn’t. Kids like that don't need prosecuting, they need parenting. They need someone to Put them on the right path, these kids really need, you know, help.

    M: In what way?

    F: Well, kids are so vulnerable. They have to have a lot of supervision. There are these kids hanging on the street doing things they are not supposed to do. I think if these kids have more self –esteem, they wouldn’t behave in that way. We have to find ways to help these kind of kids have good futures, then they wouldn’t commit crimes.

    1.In what way has Emily been the victim of a crime?

    2.At which of the following times did the crime occur?

    3.What amount of loss did she suffer in the crime?

    4.What did she do after the crime occurred?

    5.What did she think about those who committed the crime?


    European Union

    A European Union flotilla will begin anti-piracy operations off the coast of Somalia next week, EU Foreign Policy Chief Javier Solana said on Tuesday. The six warships and three maritime reconnaissance aircraft will replace a NATO naval force that has been patrolling the region and escorting cargo ships carrying relief aid to Somalia since the end of October. Although the NATO ships have successfully delivered nearly 30,000 tons of humanitarian supplies to the impoverished nation, they have not been able to stem the upsurge in pirate attacks on foreign shipping in one of the most important shipping lanes in the world.

    New Delhi, India

    US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice urged Pakistan yesterday to cooperate "fully and transparently" in investigations into the Mumbai attacks that have upset India-Pakistan relations. India has said the 10 militants who rampaged through its financial capital killing 171 people were from Pakistan, including one surviving gunman. If Pakistan fails to act swiftly against those responsible, India has threatened to pull out of a nearly five-year-old peace process between the nuclear rivals. "This is the time for everybody to cooperate and to do so transparently, and this is especially a time for Pakistan to do so," Rice told a press conference in New Delhi.

    Ottawa, Canada

    Canada's minority Conservative government may seek the temporary suspension of Parliament to stop opposition parties from voting it out and taking power, an aide to Prime Minister Stephen Harper said on Tuesday. The Liberals, New Democrats and Bloc Quebecois signed a deal on Monday committing them to bringing down the government, just seven weeks after it won re-election with a strengthened minority, and forming a coalition government to replace the Conservatives. The opposition says Harper is not doing enough to tackle the fallout from the financial crisis, so they proposed forging a coalition of Liberals and New Democrats, with the separatist Bloc promising its support.

    Manila, the Philippines

    Philippine lawmakers allied to President Gloria Arroyo quashed an impeachment motion against her yesterday, shielding her from opposition moves to unseat her for the fourth time in as many years. Eleven opposition lawmakers walked out of the chamber when it became apparent that an overwhelming majority of the 238-member House of Representatives would throw out the impeachment complaint. Voting 183-21, with three abstaining, the House of Representatives adopted a report by a congressional justice panel dismissing the impeachment complaint for lack of substance, blocking a possible trial in the Senate. The complaint against Arroyo, due to serve until mid-2010, were based on charges of corruption, bribery and human rights abuses. Apart from surviving four impeachments, she has also escaped three attempts by troops since 2003 to seize power.

    Cambridge, United States

    Harvard University says its endowment has tumbled $8 billion in the four months since the end of the last fiscal year. The school’s endowment is the largest in higher education. The estimated 22 percent decline is the school's sharpest endowment drop in modern history. The endowment was valued at $36.9 billion on June 3. The school has said its U.S. stock portfolio and foreign equity portfolio had taken hard hits recently. The university's president warned that the estimated drop may be conservative because some money managers have yet to report figures.

    Question 6: What can we know about the world’s efforts to fight pirate attacks?

    Question 7: At a press conference in New Delhi, what did US Secretary of State Rice urge Pakistan to do?

    Question 8: What is Canada’s Minority Conservative Government likely to do according to the news?

    Question 9: Which of the following statements is true about the political situation in the Philippines according to the news?

    Question 10: At least how much has Harvard University’s endowment dropped since the end of the last fiscal year?


    M: So you really believe that cloths carry a kind of message for other people and that what we put on is in some way a reflection of what we feel?

    W: oh, yes, very much so. People are beginning now to take seriously the idea of a kind of psychology of clothing to believe that there is not only individual taste in our cloth, but also a thinking behind what we wear, which is something we may not even be aware of ourselves.

    M: But truly this has been the case. We all dress up when we want to impress someone, such as for a job interview with the prospective employer. We tend to make an effort and put on something smart.

    W: True, but that is a conscious act. What I’m talking about is more of a subconscious thing. Take for example the student who is away from home at college or university, if he tends to wrap him self up more than the others, this is because he is probably feeling homesick. Similarly, a general feeling of insecurity can sometimes take the form of overdressing in warmer than are necessary.

    M: Can you give any other example of this kind?

    W: Yes. I think people who are sociable and outgoing tend to dress in an extrovert way, preferring brighter or more dazzling colours-----yellows, bright reds and so on. In the same way, aggressive cloth might indicate an aggressive personality or attitude toward life.

    M: Do you think the care or lack of it over the way we actually wear our cloth has anything to tell us?

    W: Yes, indeed. The ranks of a man’s trousers speaks volumes about his awareness his own image. Or if his trousers are at half messed, or sort of hanging down, this probably means he is absorbed by other things.

    M: Really?

    W: Or, to give you other examples, often minority groups who have perhaps failed to persuade with words tend to express themselves by wearing unconventional or what some might consider outrageous clothing as a way of showing their thoughts and feelings are different from the rest. And so they find an outlet in this way.

    M: That surely spills over into other things as well.

    W: Oh, yes, indeed. Hair cuts, music and songs can all be a form of rebellion. But to get to back to cloth, I would add that a whole lot about our personality is conveyed in our cloth and the way we look-------aggressiveness, rebelliousness, happiness, sadness and so on. This can all be interpreted. Think of the aging pop star who may be pushing middle age, he’ll keep on dressing up like a rebel to try to prove he is with it still and in touch with his young fans and current trends.

    11.About which of the following topics is the woman being interviewed?

    12. What does it probably show if an individual overdresses in warmer cloth than are necessary

    13.According to the interviewee, what kind of people tend to dress in an extrovert manner?

    14. According to the interviewe, which of the following speaks a lot about man’s awarness of his own image?

    15. According to the interview, who tend to wear unconventional clothing?



    Computers may never offer a perfect system for work and communications. Yet, in spite of the bugs that need to be worked out, there is no question that computers now shape the pattern of our activities. Almost everyone has felt the tremors and change as the internet has revolutionized the way we do things. From the way we run our daily errands to the way we relate to other human beings, with the internet, we can now get information, products and friends more quickly. With a few clicks of the mouse, we can do research on specific subjects that might have taken hours or days in a library. With online shopping, we can purchase what we need more quickly and efficiently. We can now deal with retailers over the internet, instead of waiting in lines at shopping malls. With email we can maintain friendships as well as create new ones without ever sitting down to write or post a letter. But not everyone feels the internet is improving our lives. The web is messy and that it cannot always provide clear directions on how to get where we want to go. The hyperlinks that exist among different websites often send people on a trip to nowhere or somewhere totally unexpected. The web is not an organized database. Rather, it is a brier patch where people can get stuck or lost. Online shopping is an example of this mass. Although shopping from home is appealing, e-commerce is not always as convenient as one might think. Sometimes it takes a long time to order on the internet. People can waste time or get confused filling out the information on all the different screens to place an order. In fact, anywhere from 33% to 75% of people who shop online drop out before ever placing an order. Most importantly, many people are concerned about privacy issues. They are reluctant to put their personal information on the web. Filling in information such as one’s name, address, phone number and credit card information can shake the confidence of an online shopper. Some even fear that theirs conspiracy among businesses to use consumer information for their own benefit. Perhaps even more troubling is the belief that as people spend more time surfing the web, they are becoming socially isolated. A recent survey indicated that 16% of internet users spend less time with family and friends. The amount of time a husband or wife spends on the web is frequently cited as one cause for divorce. Then the young people say that their closest friends are those they have corresponded with on the internet. That is, their closest friends are people they have never even met. Whether the internet will continue to be a driving force for change is still unknown. And whether the effects of the internet on our lives will be more positive or negative is still debatable.

    16. Computers and the internet have revolutionized the way we do things, which of the following things is not mentioned in the talk?

    17. Why is it that not everyone feels the internet is improving our lives?

    18. Which of the following is the primary concern of online shoppers?

    19. What can we know from the talk that people spending more time surfing the web?

    20. What is the main argument of this talk?

    Note –Taking and Gap-Filling

    How is urbanization negatively affecting our society? The answer to this question is not a simple one. When answering this question, one must understand that urbanization cannot be stopped but only contained in a manner that will help the United States to function better as a country.
    The more densely populated and more heterogeneous a community is, the more accentuated characteristics can be associated with urbanism. Urbanism promotes urban violence, political instability, crime and aggressive behavior. Rapid population growth in urban areas also perpetuates poverty. Another major issue being created by this social problem is the breaking of the traditional family structure. Our cities are not working well---sanitation, safety, transportation, housing, education, and even electricity are failing. These are all responsibilities of the government, or it is at least their job to regulate these services deemed to be monopolies. And it is a known fact that monopolies deem toward inefficiency.
    Functionalists look at our cities as a means to profit. Cities are a place where everybody visits. And therefore vendors can raise their prices and profit more on their products. For example, from my own personal experience, I bought a pack of cigarettes for three dollars at my local gas station. And when I visited inner city Orlando, I bought the same brand of cigarettes for four dollars.
    In the United States, the breaking of the traditional family structure is an issue that has become increasingly noticeable in recent years, particularly in urbanized areas. The traditional mom-and-dad-and-children are rarely seen in the inner cities any more. There is a weakened bond of kinship and declining social family significance as America has transferred industrial, educational and recreational activities to specialized institutions outside of the home. It is depriving families of their most characteristic, historical functions. With divorce rates rising, delinquency is also becoming more of a problem than before. In single-parent families, parents spend less time with children. These specialized institutions often help, but cannot replace the role of a child guardian. As long as the divorce rate continues to increase, delinquency will continue to increase in these areas as well.
    The variations of people give rise to segregation of people by race, religious practices, ethnic heritage as well as economic and social status. Segregation often creates much tension and prejudice between social groups. This can cause physical or mental damage to individuals or society. As for racism and segregation, there is not much that can be done to fix these problems. Individuals will always have their own opinions, no matter how ignorant. And the only thing we can do is to hope that these problems die out as we desegregate our community. People will choose their destination or place of residence according to many different ideals and needs, for example, what fits their budget? The government assumes major responsibility for development attempting to meet rapid and increasing demands for education, housing, agriculture and industrial development, transportation and employment. The government budget is not distributed equally mainly due to differentiation in areas. Areas with higher income will obviously have a higher budget to work with.
    Urban areas are usually lacking in financial resources, therefore they are not able to repair all the problems in these areas, such as sanitation, education and many other categories. America has hired 50% more teachers in the last few years than have been hired in the past, but the increase in population keeps the classrooms just as large. The effort does not meet the need, thus the problem remains as strong as ever. Due to the overpopulation in urban areas and the lack of employment opportunity, the crime rate is still a huge problem in which they are faced with. Also, the lack of the traditional family structure and weakened bonds of kinship weaken the moral of the children growing up in the urban areas. These children grow up in poverty, and usually look at crime as a quick and easy way out. Problems in urban areas are far more serious than can be handled in any short-term efforts. We can only hope to contain them and attempt to make sure that no more problems arise from the already existing ones.

    Listening and Translation

    Sentence translation

    1. I think my parents influenced me the most, material wealth, status and power were never revered in our family. I was taught to value honesty, fairness and consideration of others.


    2. Innovation is like a bamboo shoot, a bamboo shoots bends many years under ground, and then it just picks its head up like a seedling, and to shoot up very quickly.


    3. I’m a great believer that almost everything you achieve in life is down to your attitude. If I have an employee who is magnificently gifted but has a stinking attitude, I would not waste time on them.


    4. With record personal debts, tens of thousands of bankruptcies and sharp interest rate declines, economists and bankers have warned that Canadians face financial hardships which could threaten economic growth.


    5. In Europe, 26% of school children aged from 5 to 9 years old spend times on computers in 2007. yet very little research has been conducted to examine what impact computers have on children’s cognitive and emotional development.


    Passage translation

    Passage one

    If you are required to give a presentation or speech, just remember make the structure and points of what you are saying obvious to the audience. Don’t be afraid to rephrase and summarize your main points to make sure you get them across. But make it enjoyable for the audience too by being amusing if appropriate or by perhaps illustrating points you make with an anecdote or an analogy. Something that is too abstract and theoretical can be a bit tedious to listen to for too long. Anyway, we can discuss that in greater detail when you have got your subject chosen.   


    Passage two

    According to the latest report issued by the Department of Health, there are now 13 states, where more than a quarter of the adult population is overweight or obese. Nevada is the only state that saw a decrease in the percentage of the obese adult compared to last year’s report. Overall, adult obesity rose from 15% in 1985 to 32% in 2007. Taken together, individuals who are either overweight or obese comprise 64% of the US adult population. Obesity among children is increasing at an even more alarming pace, having more than tripled in the past two decades.





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